The Role of Power and Frequency Characteristics of the Cardiorespiratory System in Conditions of Minimal Physical Exercise

Life Sciences-Physiology

Authors

  • Kupriyanov Sergey Vladilenovich I. N. Ulianov Chuvash State University, head of the normal and pathological physiology department, Dr. Habil. Med., Professor, 428032, Cheboksary, Leningradskaya str., 14, flat 35 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5272-7397
  • Bochkarev Sergey Viktorovich N. Ulianov Chuvash State University, Ph.D. in Biology, associate professor, 428034, Cheboksary, M. Pavlov Str., 31, flat 49
  • Semenova Ludmila Mikhaylovna I. N. Ulianov Chuvash State University, Ph.D. in Biology, associate professor, 428034, Cheboksary, M. Pavlov Str., 35, flat 72
  • Kruglikov Nikolay Yurievich I. N. Ulianov Chuvash State University, Ph.D. in Biology, associate professor, 428034, Cheboksary, Guzovsky Str., 5, flat 65
  • Zhuravleva Nadezhda Vladimirovna I. N. Ulianov Chuvash State University, Ph.D. in Medicine, associate professor, 428003 Cheboksary, Gertsen Str., 6/1, flat 12
  • Uchterova Nadezhda Dimitrievna I. N. Ulianov Chuvash State University, Ph.D. in Medicine, associate professor, 428023, Cheboksary, Grazhdanskaya, 109, flat 312
  • Myasnikova Irina Alexeyevna I.N. Ulianov Chuvash State University, senior lecturer, 428029, Cheboksary, Khuzangay Str., 2/14, flat 26
  • Smirnova Tatiana Lvovna Ph.D. (Medicine), Associate Professor of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Chuvash State University named after I.N. Ulyanov," 45 Moskovsky prospect, Cheboksary, 428017, Russia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.22376/ijlpr.2023.13.3.L116-L122

Keywords:

cardiorespiratory system, minimal exercise, acid-base status, acid-base balance, acidosis, alkalosis.

Abstract

It is our point of view that it is necessary to study in more detail and consistently the dynamics of joint reactions of respiration and blood circulation during physical load. The study aims to determine which component of the cardiorespiratory system is a more labile parameter in forming the body's adaptive reactions in minimal physical loads. The objectives of the study are to reveal the role of respiratory and cardiovascular components of the cardiorespiratory system in achieving the overall useful result during bicycle ergometry exercises of minimal power and to make a comparison of expressiveness changes in respiratory amplitude and its rate as well as to carry out comparing human cardiorespiratory system activity and the one in animals. Healthy young people of both sexes were examined. They were provided with standard stages of short-term physical exercise load ranging from negligible to moderate. A bicycle ergometer with a pedaling rhythm of 40 per minute was used to ensure this. Before loading, at its peak, and after it, spirography, pulsometry, and tonometry were performed. These parameters were obtained for each subject simultaneously. The principles of forming cardiorespiratory interaction, revealed in the given study in humans, corresponded with the parameters of baro - and chemoreflex obtained by us earlier in acute experiments on cats. The statistical analysis was carried out using Statistica ® 7.0 package (StatSoft Inc., USA). The results' significance was assessed using Student's t-test and sign test. At minimal physical exercises, pulmonary ventilation is performed through more pronounced changes in respiratory amplitude and less markedly through respiratory rate variations. Under given conditions, domination of the respiratory system, activity was proved to be most effective. Arterial pressure and pulse react least of all. First, the systemic blood pressure increases, and the changes in cardiac frequency activity are realized last. In such cases, this parameter even can remain unchanged. The principles that define the different intensities of cardiorespiratory system components' activity for human organisms and animals turn out to be similar.

References

Eskov VM, Eskov VV, Braginskii MYa, Pashnin AS. Determination of the degree of synergism of the human cardiorespiratory system under conditions of physical effort. Meas Tech. 2011;54(7):832-7. doi: 10.1007/s11018-011-9812-y.

Vanushin YuS, Vanushin MYu. [Interrelation between indices of the cardiorespiratory system as an innovative way to assess functional opportunities of sportspeople [Published in Russian]]. J Biol Sci. 2012;1:148-50.

Trimer R, Cabidu R, Sampaio LL, Stirbulov R, Poiares D, Guizilini S et al. Heart rate variability and cardiorespiratory coupling in obstructive sleep apnea: elderly compared with young. Sleep Med. 2014;15(11):1324-31. doi: 10.1016/j.sleep.2014.05.028, PMID 25216958.

Abbasi-Kesbi R, Valipour A, Imani K. Cardiorespiratory system monitoring using a developed acoustic sensor. Healthc Technol Lett. 2018;5(1):7-12. doi: 10.1049/htl.2017.0012, PMID 29515810.

Yoon H, Choi SH, Kwon HB, Kim SK, Hwang SH, Oh SM et al. Sleep-dependent directional coupling of cardiorespiratory system in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2018;65(12):2847-54. doi: 10.1109/TBME.2018.2819719, PMID 29993405.

Billman GE. Heart rate variability – a historical perspective. Front Physiol. 2011;2:86. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2011.00086, PMID 22144961.

Feldt K, Räikkönen K, Pyhälä R, Jones A, Phillips DI, Eriksson JG, et al. Body size at birth and cardiovascular response to and recovery from mental stress in children. J Hum Hypertens. 2011;25(4):231-40. doi: 10.1038/jhh.2010.55, PMID 20535142.

Aziz W, Schlindwein FS, Wailoo M, Biala T, Rocha FC. Heart rate variability analysis of normal and growth-restricted children. Clin Auton Res. 2012;22(2):91-7. doi: 10.1007/s10286-011-0149-z, PMID 22045365.

Lhuissier FJ, Canouï-Poitrine F, Richalet JP. Ageing and cardiorespiratory response to hypoxia. J Physiol. 2012;590(21):5461-74. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2012.238527, PMID 22907053.

Maestri R, Bruschi C, Olmetti F, La Rovere MT, Pinna GD. Assessment of the peripheral ventilatory response to CO2 in heart failure patients: reliability of the single-breath test. Physiol Meas. 2013;34(9):1123-32. doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/34/9/1123, PMID 23969511.

Skow RJ, Day TA, Fuller JE, Bruce CD, Steinback CD. The ins and outs of breath holding: simple demonstrations of complex respiratory physiology. Adv Physiol Educ. 2015;39(3):223-31. doi: 10.1152/advan.00030.2015, PMID 26330043.

Trembach NV, Zabolotskikh IB. Breath-holding test in the assessment of cardiorespiratory system in patients with arterial hypertension. Eur J Anaesthesiol Suppl. 2017;34;Suppl 55:343.

Donina ZhA, Lavrova IN, Tikhonov MA, Kotov AN, Kolesnikov VI. [Cardiorespiratory responses of animals to passive orthostasis after intermittent hypoxia during head-down tilt] [Published in Russian]. Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 2006;92(8):997-1005. PMID 17217251.

Abram SR, Hodnett BL, Summers RL, Coleman TG, Hester RL. Quantitative Circulatory Physiology: an integrative mathematical model of human physiology for medical education. Adv Physiol Educ. 2007;31(2):202-10. doi: 10.1152/advan.00114.2006, PMID 17562912.

Aghajanyan NA, Petrov VI, Radish IV, Krayushkin SI. [Chronophysiology, chrono pharmacology, chronotherapy] [Published in Russian]. Volgograd: VolGMU Publishers; 2005. p. 336p.

Kupriyanov SV, Semenova LM, Bochkarev SV. Principles of cardiorespiratory interaction in the realization of chemo- and baroreflexes. New Armenian Med J. 2016;10(2):4-13.

Fleming S, Thompson M, Stevens R, Heneghan C, Plüddemann A, Maconochie I et al. Normal heart rate and respiratory rate ranges in children from birth to 18 years of age: a systematic review of observational studies. Lancet. 2011;377(9770):1011-8. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)62226-X, PMID 21411136.

Presti DL, Massaroni C, Caponero M, Formica D, Schena E. Cardiorespiratory monitoring using a mechanical and an optical system. IEEE International Symposium on Medical Measurements and Applications (MeMeA). Vol. 237; 2021. doi: 10.1109/MeMeA52024.2021.9478750.

Shulruf B, Shachaf M, Shoval E. Daily activity borg scale (dabs): using the borg's rpe scale for assessing daily physical activity. J Phys Educ Sport. 2020;20(6):3368-76.

Fletcher GF, Landolfo C, Niebauer J, Ozemek C, Arena R, Lavie CJ. Reprint of: promoting physical activity and exercise: JACC health promotion series. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018;72(23 Pt B):3053-70. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2018.10.025, PMID 30522636.

Litvin FB, Bruk TM, Terekhov PA, Osipova NV. Anaerobic capacity in biathletes depends on the type of autonomic heart rate regulation. J Med Biol Res. 2020;8(4):368-77. doi: 10.37482/2687-1491-Z029.

Bohuslavska V, Furman Y, Pityn M, Galanyaroslav G, Nakonechnyi I. Improvement of canoe oarsmen's physical preparedness by applying different training loads. J Phys Educ Sport. 2017;17(2):797-803.

Gudkov AB, Yermolin SP, Popova ON. Physiological reactions of external respiration in military personnel deployed in Russia's arctic. Vestn SurGU Med. 2017;1(31):51-3.

Shilko SV, Kuzminsky YuG, Bondarenko KK, Bogdanova NS. Еrgonomic assessment of sport skies based on analysis of athlete's hemodynamics at loading test using tonometry and electrocardiography. Russ J Biomech. 2020;24(4):439-52.

Amais RS, Donati GL, Zezzi Arruda MA. ICP-MS and trace element analysis as tools for better understanding medical conditions. TrAC Trends Anal Chem. 2020;133:116094. doi: 10.1016/j.trac.2020.116094.

Kupriyanov SV. [Combined baroreflexes upon resistive, capacitive vessels and external respiration. A concept of a cardio-vascular-respiratory system [Published in Russian]]. Ulyanovsk Medico-Biol J. 2014;3:80-8.

Garcia-Retortillo S, Javierre C, Hristovski R, Ventura JL, Balagué N. Cardiorespiratory coordination in repeated maximal exercise. Front Physiol. 2017;8:387. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2017.00387, PMID 28638349.

Amirova L, Navasiolava N, Rukavishvikov I, Gauquelin-Koch G, Gharib C, Kozlovskaya I, et al. Cardiovascular system under simulated weightlessness: head-down bed rest vs. dry immersion. Front Physiol. 2020;11:395. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2020.00395, PMID 32508663.

Lin J, Ngwompo RF, Tilley DG. Development of a cardiopulmonary mathematical model incorporating a baro-chemoreceptor reflex control system. Proc Inst Mech Eng H. 2012;226(10):787-803. doi: 10.1177/0954411912451823, PMID 23157080.

Valenza G, Lanatá A, Scilingo EP. We are improving emotion recognition systems by embedding cardiorespiratory coupling. Physiol Meas. 2013;34(4):449-64. doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/34/4/449, PMID 23524596.

Taylor EW, Leite CA, Sartori MR, Wang T, Abe AS, Crossley DA. The phylogeny and ontogeny of autonomic control of the heart and cardiorespiratory interactions in vertebrates. J Exp Biol. 2014;217(5):690-703. doi: 10.1242/jeb.086199, PMID 24574385.

Kupriyanov SV. [Functional characteristic of interceptive zone of the vertebral artery [Published in Russian]]. Morfoligicheskie Vedomosti. 2007;1(3-4):39-42.

Agadganyan NA, Kupriyanov SV. [The role of chemoreceptors of vertebral arteries zone in functional cardiorespiratory system forming [Published in Russian]]. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2009;7:4-8.

Kupriyanov SV. Role of baroreceptors in the zone of vertebral arteries in the reflex regulation of venous tone in the splanchnic basin [Published in Russian]. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2009;148(1):9-11. doi: 10.1007/s10517-009-0635-7, PMID 19902083.

Donina ZhA, Baranova EV. [Dynamics of cardiorespiratory system parameters and reactive capability of the respiratory system during rapid rise acute hypoxia [Published in Russian]]. Bull TvSU. 2013;29(2):112-20.

Kemstach VV, Korostovtseva LS, Sakowsky IV, Bochkarev MV, Alekhin AN, Sviryaev YuV. Cardiorespiratory feedback training as a non-pharmacological intervention and its application in stroke patients. [Published in Russian]. Integr Physiol. 2020;1(3):196-201. doi: 10.33910/2687-1270-2020-1-3-196-201.

Agadganyan NA, Fedorov YuI, Shekhovtsov VP, Makarova II. [Condition of cardiorespiratory system and psychological status of adolescents-pupils of Suvorov Military College in adaptation period to new socio-environment conditions [Published in Russian]]. Hum Ecol. 2004;4:16-9.

Kachenkova ES, Zavalishina SY, Zbrueva Y, Kosukhina OI. The dynamics of the body's functional state of men 50-59 years old against health training. Int J Pharm Res. 2020;12(1):1378-85.

Published

2023-05-01

How to Cite

Vladilenovich, K. S. ., Viktorovich, B. S. ., Mikhaylovna, S. L. ., Yurievich, K. N., Vladimirovna, Z. N. ., Dimitrievna, U. N. ., Alexeyevna, M. I. ., & Lvovna, S. T. . (2023). The Role of Power and Frequency Characteristics of the Cardiorespiratory System in Conditions of Minimal Physical Exercise: Life Sciences-Physiology. International Journal of Life Science and Pharma Research, 13(3), L116-L122. https://doi.org/10.22376/ijlpr.2023.13.3.L116-L122

Issue

Section

Research Articles